Monday, January 28, 2019

Should You Worry If Your Older Dog Sleeps All Day?

Ever see your senior canine dozing throughout the day? In the event that you've at any point had a more seasoned puppy, you realize that they like to rest for significant lots of time. In any case, in case you're uncertain of what a typical measure of rest is for a senior puppy, or are thinking about whether its ordinary that your senior pooch dozes throughout the day, you're not the only one.

To what extent Do Senior Dogs Sleep?

There's nobody age that consequently makes a pooch a "senior puppy." Senior status relies upon the type of the canine and to what extent the canine lives, says Dr. Ashley Rossman, DVM, at Glen Oak Dog and Cat Hospital in Glenview, Illinois. Bigger puppies have shorter life expectancies.

For instance, a Great Dane can be viewed as a senior at 5 years of age since they don't live as long, though a Maltese isn't viewed as a senior until around 7 or 8 years old.

"The more seasoned they get, the more rest they require, and that is OK," says Dr. Rossman. Much the same as senior residents require more rest, a more seasoned pooch dozes a great deal when contrasted with their more youthful partners.

On the higher end of the scale, a senior canine can rest up to 18-20 hours every day, says Dr. Rossman. She assesses that the lower end is likely around 14-15 hours out of each day.

Focus on Your Individual Dog's Sleep Patterns

"We don't have any examination into the quantity of hours a specific puppy needs or ought to have," says Dr. Ellen Lindell, a board-ensured behaviorist with Veterinary Behavior Consultations, an organization situated in New York and Connecticut.

Since there are no official rules with regards to how long a pet should rest, watching your pooch's ordinary dozing designs is critical. On the off chance that you see any sudden changes in rest conduct, it may be an ideal opportunity to call a vet.

"Utilize the canine as its very own pattern and search for changes," says Dr. Lindell. For example, on the off chance that your puppy dependably pursues you around the house and, all of a sudden quits doing that, observe. In like manner, if your puppy is typically eager to play bring with you and that eagerness is gone, focus.

"One disconnected change, I may watch," she says. "Be that as it may, in the event that many detached changes occur without a moment's delay, I'd be concerned … It truly involves degree."

Give an Environment to Sleep

Dr. Lindell says that hounds require a tranquil place to rest or escape to in the event that they need that. "Most pooches like a bed or the like. Bed inclination is up to the canine," says Dr. Lindell. "Some prefer to twist; some to extend."

For senior mutts, there are an assortment of beds accessible to oblige explicit requirements. Puppies who experience the ill effects of joint inflammation or joint agony may appreciate an orthopedic canine bed, similar to the Frisco orthopedic reinforce couch hound bed. A hoisted puppy bed is likewise an incredible choice for more established pooches in light of the fact that the lounger type style can reduce weight on their joints and muscles. A reinforced pooch bed can give senior mutts some additional help.

Most importantly, make certain to purchase a bed that addresses your individual canine's issues.

At the point when It's Time to Seek Out Professional Help

In the event that your canine's resting propensities change all of a sudden, observe. In the event that it's only multi day or two, you can most likely released it. In any case, if your canine's resting conduct changes for in excess of a couple of days and is joined by different indications, the time has come to book a vet arrangement.

"Are they resting a great deal for them by and by?" says Dr. Rossman. "On the off chance that they go from being a puppy that rests next to no to a canine that dozes constantly, something isn't right."

On the off chance that your puppy is experiencing difficulty dozing, it may likewise be an indication of a sickness. Both canine intellectual brokenness (otherwise known as doggy dementia) and numerous instances of intensifying coronary illness or heart disappointment cause night uneasiness. This is the place the creature does not rest soundly and can appear to be disturbed and walk about in the nights. It isn't constantly connected with some other clinical signs.

An adjustment in rest designs joined by the accompanying side effects could likewise be a sign that is something is wrong, as per Dr. Rossman:

Having mishaps in the house

Loss of hunger

Not playing as much as they ordinarily do

Hacking

Sniffling

Regurgitating

Looseness of the bowels

Vocalizing torment

Not drinking water

Drinking significantly more water

Torpidity

Since these side effects can be ascribed to an entire host of various infirmities, just a vet can disclose to you what explicitly is causing an adjustment in your pet's dozing propensities. Dr. Rossman says it could be indications of a viral contamination, a bacterial disease or considerably malignant growth.

“If you think something’s wrong with your pet, it’s always better to have somebody look at your pet,” says Dr. Lindell.
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Saturday, January 26, 2019

Why Does Time Seem to Speed Up as We Get Older?

Even Albert Einstein realized that the sense of time does not always coincide with the time actually passed. To explain the relativity, he said that sitting with a girl for two hours is like thinking it would be a minute. But if you sit for a minute on a hot stove, you think it would be two hours.But the sense of time does not just depend on what we do or how we feel right now. With age, many people feel that time is just racing past them. Years seem to pass in flight, weeks shrink to days, days to felt minutes. Scientists investigated this phenomenon and could not only confirm it, but justify it. Why the sense of time passes faster in old age and what you can do to slow things down a bit ...

Time is not always the same time
Time is a measurable and constant unit. A second is a second, a day is a day, a year is a year. This is not to shake up. However, as this time is felt individually, sometimes enormous differences can exist.

Imagine, a good friend would invite you to visit the opera. He is a big fan and absolutely passionate about opera and singing, you can do little or nothing with it and find the music terrible, but for his sake, say yes and go with him anyway. At the end of the performance, your friend will find it hard to believe it's over - for you, the hours will be like chewing gum under a shoe sole .

The personal sense of time depends on many factors: What are you doing? How do you feel about it? Who do you surround yourself with? Even if you are recovering and well rested, or exhausted and completely exhausted, your perception of time will be affected. You can observe this, for example, at work on yourself. If you are fit and in good shape, the eight hours are over quickly, but you have no eye during the night and feel miserable, the hands do not want to move at all.

Therefore, scientists who deal with it often distinguish between actual time and perceived time . Although the clocks tick for everyone equally fast, but it often feels very different. Especially with increasing age, this effect is noticed by many people.

The youth seemed to be endless, a year was an eternal period and looking back, the young years seemed to be much longer. In old age, the years only drag in the country, just celebrated its 50th birthday, is already the 60th planned. If the legitimate question arises, where is the time left?

Reasons for a faster sense of time in old age
In the meantime, it is no longer a guess, but a scientifically proven fact that the sense of time changes in old age. Researchers have addressed the issue in several studies and have come to the same conclusion that the time felt goes down faster with increasing age .

There are two different explanations of how the accelerated sense of time evolves in old age: the first is by Adrian Bejan, a professor at Duke University. He explains the shortened perception of time in old age by a change in stimulus processing . In childhood, adolescence and also in young adulthood, the brain captures and processes more impressions in a short time, it generates a greater number of mental images , as Bejan calls them.

Through this multiplicity of impressions, the temporal perception is extended. With age, however, fewer stimuli are processed, the brain slows down and a period seems to pass faster. There is thus an inversely proportional relationship between stimulus processing and perceived time.

Aged perception graphic
At the same time, Bejan says that the many new stimuli and first impressions collected at a younger age make the sense of time appear longer. A similar argument to explain the change in the sense of time provides also the German psychologist Marc Wittmann.

Above all, he sees memories as the cause of a faster sense of time in old age. New experiences and things that we experience for the first time are deeply remembered. Take the test yourself: remember your first big trip - either alone or with your partner. You can probably remember a lot more, even smaller details, although this holiday is much longer ago than other holiday destinations that you have traveled.

It works the same way for all the first times that are still very common in youth. The higher the age, the less really new is experienced, the memories are less memorable, larger periods of time are simply summarized and some things seem to be rather unimportant and are completely thrown out of memory. Looking back, the young years with all the memories are correspondingly much longer than the years in old age.


Changing the sense of time: How to stop the fast time in old age
Part of the guilt that time goes by faster is the routine . Everything has been there before, everyday life has a firm grip on the processes and there are no novelties or changes in sight. This is exactly where you can start to slow down the sense of time a little bit.

The easiest way : Break out of everyday life and the comfort zone . Create new memories that stay in your memories for the long term - continue to provide unknown impressions, new experiences, first times even in your old age.

You have almost endless options available. Rebuild the apartment completely, travel to a continent you've never met, take a course, and learn skills that are completely new and alien to you. Also new contacts and an extended circle of friends can slow down the sense of time. As long as it's new to you, it's a good idea.

In addition, it can help to keep your brain busy as you grow older, increasing your stimulus processing. Give your thinking apparatus something to do, challenge it, provide variety and activity with new impressions.

Timing: How to use your time better

The day has 24 hours, only the working time is considered, it goes on average eight hours a day. Everyone has basically the same amount of time at their disposal - you, the colleague, the boss, the manager ... But it is amazing how different amounts of time are accomplished and done. Some particularly productive and efficient people get the most out of each day, while others wonder how this is possible. Part of the answer: By a good timing . In fact, there are many ways you can use your time better to get more out of your daily hours. There are many things that you should do to schedule, if you want to use your time better, but also common mistakes that must be avoided ...

Timing: How to use your time better

Table of Contents: That's what you'll find in this article

Timing: A key to success
Avoid time-wasters for better timing
No time management without discipline
Tips for a better timing
What other readers have read



Timing: A key to success
Time always passes quickly. The only thing that can be different is the perception of a span , said Albert Einstein. If you sit together for two hours with the girl you love, you think it's only a minute; but if you sit on a hot stove for just a minute, you think it's two hours to clarify the idea of ​​relativity.

Thus, in professional life - apart from overtime and additional work - each employee is provided with the same time resource . However, how this time is divided and used is everyone's responsibility.

Meaning: despite the same time, there can be big differences in the results. Quantitative as well as qualitative . What one does is utopian for another. Motivation and discipline also play a role, but just in the timing can be a key to success.

If you divide your time in the best possible way, you get several advantages and positive effects . First of all, you improve your results and achievements. You can do more and work better, which will also attract attention to your boss. In addition, your satisfaction benefits because you can reduce stress and be proud of your work.

Avoid time-wasters for better timing
Timing learn to use synonym time betterThere's a lot you can do for better timing - more on that later in the article. However, before you get scared and fear that good time management is complicated and exhausting, there is good news first: Often you do not have to do anything extra, but it is enough to leave out bad habits in order to achieve better time management.

In the first step, you have to identify your personal time- wasters . Ask yourself what you spend the most time with during the day and especially with what you waste the bulk. Do you make many unnecessary phone calls that are barely effective, but cost time? Are you constantly answering mails or sitting in meetings so you can not focus on the real tasks?

At many time guzzlers you are also to blame, for example, if you are distracted by your smartphone or surf the Internet. To improve your timing, it takes this honest self-reflection to see where you can gain time.


No time management without discipline
It is easy to talk about timing, to put the project into practice is yet another challenge. The biggest problems are the lack of discipline . But this is exactly what you need to get the best and most out of your time.

Anyone who postpones, finds excuses or does not control himself and his actions, wastes time. Problems with your timing may therefore be a problem of discipline.

Try to discipline yourself , stick to it, and perform unpleasant tasks without postponing or breaking things down. Your time will already benefit.


Tips for a better timing
You want to improve your time schedule? Finally, there are a number of tips and suggestions that can help you:

Better scheduling through planning and preparation
What is up now? What do I have to take care of? Did not I forget something? It is easy to lose track and thus a lot of time that could make you more productive. Instead of thinking about it for a long time, you should pay more attention to planning and preparation. Indecision and disorientation make efficient time management impossible. Instead of starting blind, you should have a plan to orient yourself.

For example, the day before, think about what needs to be done the next day and which projects have to be done in which order. This can prevent unpleasant surprises, avoid stress and help you make better use of the limited time.

Better timing through clear priorities
Perhaps the most common and best-known tip for better timing: set clear priorities. Knowing which task is especially important and especially urgent will ensure that you automatically get the time right. This also means that you should focus on the important decisions so as not to waste time with unimportant trifles.

An eternal back and forth and thoughts about the pros and cons is only useful for big and important decisions. Be aware that not every detail needs to be planned down to the last detail and become perfect. Such exaggerated perfectionism makes good timing impossible and causes on top of that frustration.

Better timing by routine
Routines give your day structure and fixed processes. This order helps with a better timing, because the work is more organized. You can also schedule fixed times for certain things, for example, answer emails every morning from 10 am to 10:30 am. Or tackle the hardest task of the day every day first. So you do not jump from one ToDo to the next and do not waste your time thinking about what to do next.

Even a good morning routine can help with timing, to start the day right. In addition to sports, reading, radio or music, you can also make it your routine to go through the next day mentally and already be aware of possible time shortages that can be avoided.

Better timing by borders
An effective means for a good timing are limits. Determine how long you are engaged in a task and adhere to this requirement. This can already be done when planning a working day. Should it not work to keep the time frame, you can analyze the reasons for it and learn from it for the future.

You should not only set boundaries for yourself, but also for others. Do not be interrupted for trifles, ask colleagues to come back with a concern later, unless it is urgently needed. Also say no is an important factor in your time management, to avoid being overwhelmed with tasks.

Better timing by delegating
You want to do as much as possible yourself? Seems like a good attitude, but it can hurt your timing. They may not be good at everything and for some things you may need more time than other colleagues who have more experience or knowledge in this area. Understanding which tasks you should delegate and hand over to others is an important factor for better time management.

Delegating has nothing to do with laziness and does not harm your career or your reputation in the company - if you do not overdo it and simply reject any task. Rather, you prove that you know and use your strengths without forgetting the special skills of your colleagues. So all resources are used in the best possible way, which should also please the boss.

Better timing through flexibility
Despite all planning and structure, you should still remain flexible, because otherwise your time schedule soon reaches its limits. There is always something unpredictable that can upset your schedule. The boss comes with an order that can not wait, a customer has a short-term change request that needs to be implemented quickly, or a colleague needs help to keep a deadline .

Therefore, always leave some free time to react and adapt. In any case, with all productivity and timing, you should also think about breaks .
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Wednesday, January 23, 2019

Man Utd cleared to make £96m move for hitman tipped to replace Lukaku

Manchester United have been given an immense lift in their quest for a striker with a €110m proviso, if the most recent reports from Spain are to be accepted. 


Icardi has been with Inter since 2013, yet his time with the Serie A monsters could before long be arriving at an end, with reports proposing issues have emerged over an agreement restoration with the club.

Wear Balon even revealed before in the month that Icardi is a €110m focus for United and Real Madrid, and the two sides could dispatch £99million.

Talking after Inter's 0-0 draw with Sassuolo, his better half and operator Wanda Nara issued a resistant reaction to hypothesis she is getting down to business over another agreement.

"Neither Mauro nor I have ever requested anything, The issue is that I'm generally observed as the imbecile," she disclosed to Italian TV indicate Tiki Taka.

"At the point when the club choose it's the correct minute to call us, we'll answer and take a seat with them.

"There's a genuine plausibility of him remaining at Inter for quite a while.

"An assention soon? I've gotten positive signs, so I trust it tends to be a critical week: my telephone is on and for me he'll reestablish 100 percent, regardless of whether I haven't conversed with anybody yet."

Wear Balon are presently the Argentine isn't enthused about Inter's optimal of putting a €200m discharge proviso in his new arrangement as it secures him excessively.

It is positively an insight that the previous Sampdoria star is welcoming offers to meet his the present discharge statement embedded at £96million, which ends up dynamic in the late spring exchange window.

Icardi could be a perfect alternative to supplant Romelu Lukaku, who has wound up behind Marcus Rashford in the pecking request at United as of late.

Transfer news: Chelsea and Manchester United target Mauro Icardi could be sold by Inter Milan with Financial Fair Play sanctions looming

Mauro Icardi could be headed to either Manchester United or Chelsea with Inter Milan apparently confronting money related hardships.

The San Siro club are, as indicated by Gazzetta dello Sport, in line to get sanctions from UEFA for rupturing Financial Fair Regulations.

The overseeing body are said to have educated Inter they have to adjust their books and raise €50million (£44million) by June or hazard confronting sanctions.

To do as such it has been proposed the Serie A side can create the cash through player deals – and Mauro Icardi is the ideal objective.

The striker is as of now a needed man, with both Chelsea and Manchester United hot on his tail.

The Argentina universal has effectively struck multiple times this season in Serie An, and contributed with two helps.

Chelsea and Manchester United would both love to gobble up the 25-year-old and they may now get their opportunity if Inter need to raise reserves.

Icardi at present has a discharge condition of around £90million in his present contract.
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Friday, January 18, 2019

Making decisions: 12 surprising facts about decision making

Around 20,000 decisions are made daily. Most of them lightning fast. It starts with getting up: As soon as the alarm clock beeps, the index finger hits the snooze button - you decide: five more minutes of twilight sleep! But that means less time for breakfast - so skip a second cup of coffee. The next decision. And so on. Much of this happens unconsciously, and given the scale of our daily choices, we can be lucky that some of them are trivial. In the job, however, we also come in a lot of situations in which we have to decide lightning fast , without really wanting it. And we are there with a probability of about 60 percent under time pressure ...

Head or stomach?
Many of our spontaneous judgments we meet unconsciously and from the gut. But are they better for that? Amazing wise: yes. At least most.

The New York journalist Malcolm Gladwell wrote the bestseller Blink about the power of intuition ! , Like Gladwell, many are convinced: gut decisions are no worse than those of the mind, but many times faster.

For example, psychologist Sian Leah Beilock of the University of Chicago found that professional golfers play best when they do not have time to think about their batting. Only for beginners, it is the other way around.

Feelings do not obscure the mind.

Another attempt was made by US neurologist Antonio Damasio of the University of Iowa. He included probands in the early nineties on a kind of lie detector and let them play with prepared cards. The first card game made big profits, the second one small. Both stacks of cards were interspersed with red cards for which you had to pay a fine. The trick: In the second stack, there were fewer penalty cards, so in the long run, it paid to play. From the 50th card it dawned on most subjects.

The evaluation of the detector but brought the real sensation: The instinct had warned the subjects from the 10th card.

Decisiveness is more than a decision to make
"If you have to make a decision and you do not hit it, that's a decision, too," US psychologist William James mused wisely. But decisiveness means more than making a choice at all.

She makes sure that you are completely committed to your cause, that you do not keep your back door open and concentrate all your energy on the success of your goal . Anyone who has decided to run a marathon can not sit lazily on the couch every night, but has to work out daily. Determination means consciously choosing and acting. There is also a nice bon mot:

Do what you want - but really!

And there are studies that show that such an attitude is tremendously creative and productive. Those who hesitate and hesitate a long time, postpone their decisions and, what is worse, drift away both the respect of others and those of themselves.

However, decisiveness can also make those affected obsessed. And this side of her is a fire hazard. As much as terrier virtues are valued - too much doggedness always seems unsonvenient and convulsive. When Christopher Columbus convinced the Spanish court to finance his voyage of discovery, he demanded at the same time to receive the insane title "Grand Admiral of the Ocean". In the process, Columbus proved to be a navigational fool. Instead of a sea route to India, he discovered America. Lucky for luck: The new country was also rich and saved his career for the time being. Had the brisk "Grand Admiral" returned empty-handed, his chutzpah would have been rated differently.

Loss Fears: The Psychology of Decisions
However, it is true that with every decision for something, we exclude dozens of alternatives :

You choose for an iPhone and against all other smartphones that also could have purchased (and three things it buys yes no one in their right mind).
You choose for a mate and close all the other love affairs that you perhaps also could have had. Anyway, that's usually the case.
Unfortunately, we humans often pay more attention to the loss associated with the decision and mourn it afterwards, as we are pleased about the object of our choice. And that causes us to make rather stupid decisions for fear of losses , those that promise short-term rewards.

The American behavioral economist and renowned researcher Dan Ariely has been able to show this in countless experiments.

For example, in one of them the subjects sat in front of a computer and saw three doors - red, green, blue. They were allowed to click on one, then a room opened with three more doors. Again red, green, blue. There was money in each of these rooms at different levels that her computer-me could collect. So there was a need to find those doors behind which was a particularly large amount, in order to maximize the profit. In addition, the subjects had a total of 100 clicks.

Ostensibly, it was about developing a decision-making strategy to get the most out of the limited options. Simply clicking back and forth indiscriminately reduced the profit outlook.

But now Ariely used a perfidious trick: If a particular door was not clicked twelve times, it simply disappeared. Effect: As soon as the participants noticed this refinement, they began to click wildly, to avoid the door closing permanently. Of course, they were blasting far too many of their limited options and ultimately diminished returns.

What's more, if they had simply continued as before (and remained faithful to their decisions), they would have achieved a maximum - because in fact only the options became less and thus the chances to tap next, but not the money.

The dilemma of long-term decisions
It is the main problem of elections that are based on long-term goals : we have to make the decision here, now, today - but we will see and feel its result or success only in the future.

Example career choice: What we study or what profession we choose, we have to decide shortly after graduation. Whether the choice was right and whether it actually gives us a job and a career is not clear until the end of the training and then we need a while to get more clarity about it.

A dilemma, that. And one that lets us make some short-sighted choices when in doubt. Quite a few opt therefore for a short-term solution . After all, promises a kind of instant reward by faster success: Dear the sparrow in the hand as the pigeon on the roof and so ...

It is ultimately a compromise that we conclude: while we may not choose exactly what we want, at least it does have some immediate benefits. Dangerous! A compromise may not be that bad, but many compromises in a row can take us a long way from our original goal. We turn off more and more often and end up somewhere else than we wanted. Many have lost their way and got burned.

However, to avoid the temptation and still achieve its goals , there are a few simple tricks ...

Be aware that you are making a compromise - and thus deviate from your original plan. Most of the time we do not make noticeably bad decisions, but we make concessions because they promise us at least a short-term success. But they may still take us further from our ultimate goal.
Force yourself for a short break. If you realize that you're back to making a more short-term or short-sighted choice (and often do), then you force yourself to take a break to lower the decision-making stress. The trick: This reduces the need for the instant reward of the speed dial.
Switch to the eagle's perspective. Basically, it is the best advice before any hard decision: step back and look at the scenario from a different, broader perspective. Where does the choice lead you in the long term? What are the consequences? What future opportunities? If you do not see it all, you only respond to acute stress.
Switch off sources of interference. If you have to make an important decision, you should know all the relevant information and eliminate any external stress factors (assumptions, opinions, fears), right? Quite simple, but we often behave quite differently - and wonder about lousy decisions. The conclusion: Make far-reaching elections only when you have the peace and relevance for it.
Granted, the four points represent an enormously simplified concept that reads more complicated than it is. Once internalized, everyday decisions can be made better within a few minutes.


Why we defend wrong decisions
As if that was not bad enough, we lie afterwards even in the bag. Man is not only the crown of creation, but unfortunately also great in creating his own reality: "I make me the world, widdewid how I like it," lamented Pippi Longstocking. What belonged to the popular Romangöre for joyous self-understanding, however, ends in real life, unfortunately, in a universe of self-deception, whitewashing and self-righteousness .

Let's say you could choose between two potential partners. However, at your option, you would suddenly be linked to the one partner you did not choose . Would you remember that? Surely you would! However, a remarkable experiment by the psychologists Lars Hall and Petter Johansson from the University of Lund in Sweden shows that we often do not notice the difference in a more abstract implementation - and the supposedly wrong mate choiceeven for gold right hold. For example, one test person stated that she preferred women with earrings - only the lady she refused had earrings. Another person gave a smile on the photo as a crucial argument. The image in his hand, however, showed no smiling face - only the originally chosen face was friendly.

Hall and Johansson called the phenomenon Choice Blindness ; in German the term Wahlblindheit is used.

Non-voters: That's why we do not decide, though we should
There are experiments after their reading you know what you do not know. Or one is then more convinced of the unbelievable stupidity of man , than of his often subordinate intelligence. In this category of scientific experiments also includes the so-called Becher-attempt of the American economist Jack Knetsch.

In his 1989 experiment he gave students a coffee cup and asked them shortly if they would be willing to swap the cup for a chocolate bar . 90 percent preferred to keep the cup. And they were not diabetics! The same number worked the other way around: the people first got a chocolate bar and were then asked if they would swap it for a coffee mug. Now around 90 percent stayed with the candy.

Decision paralysis means that in jargon and means that sometimes we would prefer not to decide. The main thing is that everything stays the same. Even if that may not be so good: the job is no longer fun anymore. The partner at home is just getting bored. Sex is as exciting as marching music. Everything boring, boring and annoying. But can not that please stay that way? Just out of habit, routine and comfort?

You have what you have, that is what we humans often think. Just do not give the warm, fragrant coffee back! Just do not give up the job that robs you of a long sleep and joy of life ! Just do not work on the partnership, even though the fire of passion has long since withered away! Nice stupid. Because sometimes stopping is better than preserving. Sure, sometimes it's the other way around, you can not judge that in the end . But one can consciously decide to do so - even if at first glance it is annoyingly annoying to have to weigh again.

12 things you did not know about decisions:
In general, it is worthwhile to study the psychology of decisions a little more extensively. We have summarized the 12 most remarkable research results for you below.

In the dark, we make more rational decisions.
The next time you face an important decision and want to make it more rational than emotional - please dim the light. No joke. Researchers led by Alison Jing Xu of the Rotman School of Management and Aparna Labroo of Northwestern University want to find out that bright light enhances our emotions, whether positive or negative. Does this mean for everyday life: For example, if you sell a lot of emotional products - such as flowers - it might make sense to illuminate your shop brightly. On the other hand, if you want to hold a difficult (diplomatic) negotiation or attend a meeting in which, above all, a factual decision should be made, you better dim the light.

With full bladder we make better decisions.
Do not laugh! Scientists from the University of Twente in the Netherlands have actually investigated this . As a result, the fuller the bladder, and the more probands scuttled on the spot, the more likely they were to choose long-term goals and benefits. Interesting side effect in the control group: Just the thought of words, the persons associated with the urination, led to similar effects. Urination effectExperts call that, and the reasoning is quite rational: Apparently, if we can control an impulse, we also gain control over various other impulses. Or to put it simply: Whoever manages to suppress his urge to urinate in the short term (!) Can also better resist short-term temptations.

Stress leads to riskier decisions.
Especially managers should be aware of this effect. Many of them are under pressure day in, day out. However, as Canadian scientists around Theodore Noseworthy of the University of Guelph found , managers in the case tend to opt for the riskier alternative. The stress rationally distanced them from the potential negative and long-term consequences for the company and also emotionally corrupted them. As is so common for alpha animals, those in stress prefer to go into attack mode, although under normal circumstances they demonstrably have balanced problem-solving skills. If managers do not have that outward pressure, they weigh more carefully, reflect more and choose better, as Noseworthy summarizes.

We usually choose the first option.
If we have to quickly choose between several alternatives, we usually opt for the first option. And that's regardless of whether it's consumer goods or business strategies, according to a study by Dana R. Carneyfrom the University of California at Berkeley and her colleague Mahzarin R. Banaji, psychology professor at Harvard University. The explanation, however, is quite simple: If we decide between different job offers, for example, then we rather choose the first position in the list, because this is often our dream job. Means: The list was prioritized before. Because that is the case, we are conditioning ourselves at the same time. Motto: The first is the best. And once learned, we remain faithful to this pattern in later decisions.

The majority opts for known.
This psycho-effect is closely related to the previous one and shows the agony of choice is sometimes nonexistent. Scientists have been researching for years what factors help people make better decisions. One of these simple rules is the so-called recognition heuristic : Afterwards, we prefer the one we recognize again when judging several objects. In behavioral experiments, this preference has been proven many times. In the meantime, however, neuroscientific studies have also shown that "the decision-maker can actually be guided by a sense of familiarity," says Timm Rosburg, for example, who runs such a studytogether with his colleagues Saarbrücken Axel Mecklinger and Christian has published. So if you have to choose between two things, you tend to prefer the already known alternative. Although such behavior often leads to correct decisions. In some situations, however, the recognition heuristic lends itself to wrong judgments, for example on the stock market: More well-known companies are often rated better there than they are - and that's just because of their frequent mention in the media.

If you can not decide, you need an alternative.
In technical jargon, this phenomenon also means decoy effect, Discovered by the American marketing professor Joel Huber. In 1982, he asked several test subjects whether they would rather dine in a five-star far-away restaurant or in a nearby three-star restaurant. Given such a vague description, the choice was not easy. After all, the subjects were supposed to compare apples to pears - and some of those they'd never tasted (to stay in the picture). But now Huber offered them a third alternative: they could also dine in a four-star restaurant, even further away than the five-star restaurant. In fact, that was a classic non-information. Do you know more about the benefits of restaurant one, two or three? Just. However, something amazing happened: The participants decided suddenly and easily for the five-star restaurant. The baitdecoy ) formed a kind of scale for her, a measuring crutch, with which the other two options suddenly became much easier to compare.

Good mood decide more generously.
Care, if you're in a really good mood and then have to make a choice! If you are positive, you will decide suboptimal. In any case, the result of an investigation at the Faculty of Psychology of the University of Basel could be summarized. Above all, so-called sequential decisions were examined. They are quite common in everyday life - such as when buying a home or looking for a job: you get successively different offers, which you can accept or reject. If you refuse, the offer is no longer available. In these decisions, the quality of the choice is closely related to how many tenders are evaluated. Both too short and too long a search are problematic: If you look too short, you might miss the best offer; Anyone who postpones his election forever, can gamble away his chance as well, because then another comes before. The Basel researchers now wondered if their own mood has an influence on it. Lo and behold, the happier the subjects were, the faster they accepted an option. Interestingly, older people were more affected by this effect than younger people.

Bad moods look clearer.
As Australian psychologist Joe Forgas of the University of New South Wales has noted, scotchers are gaining more attention. At that time, Forgas had his subjects watch different films and remember positive or negative moments in their lives to put them in a good or bad mood. Then he gave them tasks to solve: The participants should judge about the veracity of urban legends or the testimony of witnesses. In both cases, the bad-tempered ones performed noticeably better, made fewer mistakes and communicated their judgments more confidently - even in written form they argued better.

Anger makes decisions more rational.
Scientists led by Maia Young of the Anderson School of Management in California found that annoying people often make more rational decisions - because anger suppresses classical bias factors ( confirmation bias ). In the experiments, the subjects were discussing various articles and whether a hands-free system makes driving a car safer. Result: Those who were previously (manipulatively) annoyed, more readily grabbed the contrary texts and was afterwards also more willing to question his previously prepared opinion in a subsequent debate or even change.

Who wants to decide better, should get up.
If one believes a study by the psychologist Frank Fischer of the Munich-based LMU, simply getting up will lead to better decisions: Fischer and his colleagues analyzed the behavior of their subjects in various test offices with ergonomic chairs, pin boards, and height-adjustable tables in a series of empirical studies. In the end it turned out that those who got up more often and worked standing up had 24 percent more ideas and made better decisions 25 percent of the time than the fraction that had stayed behind.

High bonuses lead to better decisions.
Actually, it's an old hat that affects money choices. Above all, bonuses and other bonuses mean that employees do not always decide for the benefit of the customer or the company - but in favor of their own payroll. However, Harvard researchers Shawn A. Cole, Martin Kanz and Leora Klapper have discovered that making big bonuses leads to better choices. In this particular case, the bank employees worked immediately more thoroughly and examined the loan applications more intensively.

Well-rested choose wiser.
Even morally! Just one hour of sleep deprivation can dramatically decrease our response rates, make slower and worse decisions and take higher risks, according to a study by Virginie Godet-Cayré of the Center for Health Economics and Administration Research in France. Conversely, the blessings of healthy sleep are equally underpinned. Sleeping makes you smart and creative.

Decisions make you tired
If you have to decide much, you lose a good part of your mental capacity. That's what psychologist Kathleen Vohs found out.

In one of their various experiments, students should prepare for a test, but were previously confronted with a course choice. They already performed worse in the test than the control group.
On the second try, the subjects were sent to shopping in a mall. There they undoubtedly made a lot of consumer decisions. Vohs then subjected her to a math test: Once again, shoppers made more mistakes than the control group.
The conclusion: decisions make you tired . Whether you meet them voluntarily or under pressure, whether they are fun or not, they are powering us out. The Constant Choice - It's Really Torturing Now. If you're facing important decisions, you may not want to meet them at the end of a busy and decision-making day.

Decision dilemma: dealing with contradictions
Above all, there is one way of thinking in our Western culture : the critical-analytical one.

The mindset goes back to the Greek philosophers, especially Plato and Aristotle. Even they tried to approach the truth by logical comparison and judgment . With the truth, they wanted to find the "right" approach and reject all others as "wrong".

This critical thinking is undeniable in certain areas of high value, since it has established a scientific tradition that has brought great progress.

Man wants a consistent world. Contradictions are deeply unpleasant and difficult to bear. In technical jargon we speak of cognitive dissonance : we recognize that there is a gap between option one and option two. It is a negative emotional state that arises whenever we are confronted with incompatible perceptions , thoughts, opinions, attitudes, desires or intentions. What is right and what is wrong? The result is a decision dilemma.

Logic also knows this problem. The philosopher, mathematician and logician Bertrand Russell formulated it as a Babier paradox :

One can define a barber as one who shaves all those and only those who do not shave themselves.

The question arises: Shaves the barber himself? The attempt to answer the question results in a contradiction. If the man shaves himself, he is no longer a barber, because a barber is someone who only shaves others, but not himself. If he does not shave himself, he is one of those men who do not shave themselves and have to shave with them be his own customer. Do you recognize the problem? Does it resist you to accept this?

Tips for dealing with contradictions
Because we are reluctant to accept contradictions . We want the simple solution. We automatically feel the desire to reduce the inconsistency. But what is forgotten is that both options can exist side by side. With the view of the human being is always argued over whether man is good or bad. Instead of opting for one, the complementary answer is : Man is good and evil. It is a complement of both opposites.

This can also be transferred to the personal level . For questions like:

Freedom or security?
Order or chaos?
Proximity or distance?
Trust or control?
What we basically want is the best of both options . Therefore it needs a compromise. One way to deal with contradictions is to find a compromise. Broken down to a simple formula: find a solution that partially satisfies both claims .

What helps you:

Say goodbye to either / or thinking. Rather than understanding both options as incompatible, try to see them as two parts of a whole. You do not have to give up one thing for the other, but look for a way to connect the two sides.
Decide on the weighting. What is really important to you? It depends on your situation and it can change at any time. It's all about finding out which mix is ​​the right one. What feels good. For example, the need for freedom and sometimes for safety may prevail.
Do not look for the right way. The term "right" suggests that there is a universal path or decision. But for most situations this is not true. That's why "right" is always to be seen in the context of "right for me". Keep that in mind, it will make it easier for you to break expectations.

Decision: The 10-10-10 model
From Suzy Welch (this is the wife of ex-General Electric boss Jack Welch) comes the so-called 10-10-10 model , with which decisions can be made relatively simple and fast . To this end, she advises first to research and collect all essential information on the decision problem, but under the following premises:

What effect does my decision have in 10 days ?
What impact does it have in 10 months ?
What effects does it have in 10 years ?
Sounds trivial. It is. However, such a selection process helps to sharpen the view towards the future and the long-term effects of the election. If you are looking for a new job, you should play through the 10-10-10 model and ask yourself if he or she really gets the job where he or she wants to go in ten years.

The Abilene paradox
Abilene paradoxIn fact, we first know that others do not agree, if they say so. In other words, we often interpret silence as approval , with the effect that everyone is silent in the extreme and everyone believes everyone is in favor, but in truth they all want the opposite.

In professional circles, this phenomenon is also known as the Abilene paradox . It says that some decisions just look like they're based on consensus. In fact, they are due to wrong perceptions and therefore lead to a voting behavior that runs counter to the original intention.

The paradox discovered Jerry Harvey, a professor at George Washington University, in 1974 after a trip with his wife and parents to his hometown Abilene (hence the name). He had started the journey because someone in the family suggested it, assuming that the others needed a change . Everyone agreed, because everyone believed that each other was also for the journey. After returning but turned out: Actually, all would have preferred to stay at home.

Harvey later transferred this knowledge to typical mismanagement and voting behavior in organizations, especially in meetings.

Jim Westphal, a colleague of Harvey at the University of Michigan, has been able to show that this paradox also prevails at the highest management level, such as a director's board. In addition, he collected data from more than 228 boards, the result: quite often, the managers do not contradict each other and the strategy once chosen, although they have strong doubts about their accuracy .

The consequence is clear: The companies fall back in the competition, do botched or even fail. Nevertheless, even then, managers stick to their strategy because they accept it from others as well; Thank the Abilene paradox.
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Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Self-employment: prerequisites, steps, self-test

To finally become self-employed , no longer have to deal with the boss, make your own idea a reality, earn good money and make everything exactly as it is your own desires ... In theory, independence is the sky - and the noblest way to professional happiness. If everything goes well, that's true. But woe, if not ... Being independent, turning one's passion into a job - that brings with it enormous freedom, but also a lot of responsibility and a lot more working time. Especially at the beginning. Not by chance it says: "Who is self-employed, works himself and constantly ." And not every person is made for self-employment. What matters,How you can start your own business - and if you have what it takes, shows you the following detailed dossier including self-test ...

Self-employment: prerequisites, steps, self-test

Contents: That's what you'll find in this article

Self-employment Definition: When is one self-employed?
Self-employed: Why do so many dream of it?
Self-test: Is self-employment the right thing for me?
Self-employed: Requirements and means of self-employment
Before self-employment: You can do that now
Self-employed: 4 steps to self-employment
Steps to Independence: Call Perfect Day
Steps to independence: facing alternatives
Steps to independence: Imagine worst-case scenario
Steps to independence: observe timing
Interview: Is it better to start your own business?
9 myths about self-employment
What other readers have read about it



Self-employment Definition: When is one self-employed?
Self-employment definition self-employed unemployed work part-time ideas self-employed activity and employed insuranceFor the concept of independence, there are two definitions :

Generally this means that a person is independent of outside help . Getting dressed, eating, learning, thinking, sleeping - this is the kind of person who can do whatever he or she likes.
In terms of working life , this refers to a form of gainful employment , independent of an employer. This definition of independence goes here.
But what exactly does it mean to be independent?

Self-employed is anyone who can freely dispose of his own workforce and working hours and work for several clients . Because you work independently, these clients are not authorized to give you instructions. You can accept the orders or not. Also how you do this is usually up to you. The result is paid.

Thus, the self-employed person has no obligation at regular intervals to report to a supervisor on a regular basis, to work in a specific place or to be controlled in any way.

Conversely, as a self-employed person you bear your own entrepreneurial risk - according to case law, one of the strongest indications of genuine independence. This also includes own resources such as laptop, paper, business cards, homepage and a private office.

On the other hand, anyone who works within the scope of his employment for only one client (and is therefore dependent on him) or, for example, uses the email address and telephone number of the client as well as agrees on representation arrangements with permanent colleagues, is deemed to be self-employed .

One more thing first: you will read variations in spelling out in various media, both are correct: independently or selb st constantly.

Self-employed: Why do so many dream of it?
In the course of professional life, every employee probably thinks about becoming self-employed. Some people think right at the beginning of their career about whether working independently as a founder and entrepreneur would be the best for him or her. Others come up with the idea later that self-employment would be an alternative to permanent employment with an employer.

But where does this general fascination and enthusiasm for self-employment come from ?

As a rule, the dream of independence regularly inspires three key factors:


Dissatisfaction with one's own situation
Anyone who works for a company thinks first of all of becoming self-employed when he or she becomes dissatisfied with their own career. Either the work is no longer fun, there is trouble with the boss or colleagues, workload and work density are constantly increasing - the salary but not. Accordingly, a search is made for a way out.

Self-employment comes to many concerned as the first alternative in mind when they fear that the hamster wheel at another employer would start all over again.

Focus on the benefits
Those who think about self-employment usually get the typical advantages first: the great freedom, self-determination , the opportunity to build something of their own, the prospect of financial freedom, perhaps even wealth and prosperity.

Everything is not wrong. If you look at the richest Germans or richest people in the world, most of them are entrepreneurs and never employees. However, what is happily ignored is the legion of people who wanted to become self-employed and failed just as grandiosely or even got themselves deeply in debt. Likewise, there are countless risks and hours of hard work associated with starting up, as well as the absence of leisure time, holidays and usually many setbacks.

Self-employed Work Occupation Career Self-Employment Tips Myths Advantages Disadvantages
Low entry barriers
The Internet has made self-employment easier - or as the jargon puts it: lowering market entry barriers . Today, you do not need large factory buildings, expensive machines or a lot of manpower to start your own business. Internet connection and laptop are enough. Sometimes only a smartphone. And because a lot of travel blogger-influencer-youtube-star-Instagram-consultants are constantly fueling the dream of fast money, paid dream trips and free product samples (often to finance one's own money), today it's all too much seductive idea to build your own online business.

No question: You can make your own on the Internet, create jobs and live from it - theCareer Bible and her team are the best example. But the way there is by no means easy or fast - especially if there are so many (with the same idea) try.

Of course, we do not want to stop anyone who wants to become self-employed. But we also advise you not to look at independence through pink glasses . Or to plunge into this venture with the usual naivety, as the TV emigrants or private insolvency applicants in spe live on channels such as VOX or RTL regularly.

It is a big, courageous step - with great opportunities , but also considerable risks , which should be carefully considered and weighed up beforehand. We would like to help you here on this page.


Self-test: Is self-employment the right thing for me?
Self-test: Is self-employment the right thing for me?If you are still unsure whether you really have the makings of self-employment, the following small self-test can help you.

This of course has no scientific claim and also gives you no guarantee for the subsequent success. But it can help you to better evaluate yourself and find out if you should start your own business - or better not.

Please answer each question with either I agree or I disagree . At the end of the test, add up the number of questions you have agreed to and get to the result or the evaluation ...

Support in the private environment
My family is enthusiastic about the idea of ​​self-employment and supports me.
My partner can provide for the common livelihood through his income and is also ready for it.
My partner is ready to support me in the initial phase and to take over tasks in the new company in addition to my own job.
My family is ready to accept cuts in our current standard of living.
My family accepts that in the initial phase I will have less time for family life.
Planning and implementation
I already have a concrete idea.
I have enough liquid funds or collateral that I can contribute to my new company as equity.
I already have a broad professional network and could use these contacts as potential customers or business partners.
I have many years of experience in the market.
I know the industry and know that there is a need for my idea.
I have commercial knowledge or have people in my area who have this knowledge.
I have already gained leadership experience.
I can prepare for entry into self-employment parallel to my current job.
I have already dealt with funding opportunities.
I take the time to prepare well and do not rush.
Motivation and personality
I am convinced of the success of my idea.
I'm not afraid of failure.
Difficulties are there to be overcome.
I am ready to take risks.
I have no problem approaching people and convincing them of my idea.
After setbacks, I rappel again and continue.
If I'm a little bit fussy, I'll go for it.
I believe in my goals, even if my friends think they are crazy.
I can clearly represent my interests and communicate with customers.
I am able to make decisions quickly.

Become self-employed? The evaluation for the self-test
Have you reached between 0 and 17 points ? Then come here for your evaluation.
Have you achieved more than 18 points ? Then come here for your evaluation.
Self-employed: Requirements and means of self-employment
There are different ways to become self-employed in Germany. Basically, this option is open to any German citizen or EU citizen .

The prerequisite for being self-employed (and having a chance of success) is twofold:

personal requirements
Entrepreneurship demands a certain amount of risk from you. Even if your business idea is mature, there are always economic imponderables. Those who are too strongly attached to safety thinking will have difficulties with reasoning. On top of that, you are now responsible for areas that used to be your boss's: you have to pay yourself into social insurance and think about old-age provision . Social skills , the ability to communicate and compromise, and negotiation skills are essential because you will be dealing with customers, business partners and employees. And no one else will take over the unpleasant parts of the job for you.

Professional qualifications
To succeed (!) Independently, you must have expertise in your field. This is especially important if you want to receive financial support, such as the start- up grant. This is paid by the Employment Agency. However, it will only be approved if a viable business concept is presented. These include, for example, registration documents such as a master craftsman certificate or certificates of reliability (for taxi drivers). So you should not only be able to acquire knowledge in business management and commercial matters. You should also be able to answer the question: What can I (personally) offer what customers are looking for and what does not exist or not at my cheaper price?

If these personal and professional requirements are met, there are different ways to become self-employed:

They make themselves independent from unemployment.
Who has been unemployed for some time , for the self-employment can be a delightful alternative to the already absent employment relationship. Here you can even start your own business with state subsidies. However, this is only possible for ALG I recipients. The employment agencies, chambers of industry and trade advise interested parties.

They are self-employed part-time.
Lack of capital and / or lack of knowledge can be one of the reasons to become self-employed on a part-time basis: you can still acquire the lack of specialist knowledge in the area in which you are considering setting up a business. In addition, an existing employment relationship guarantees you financial security, while your own business may be slow to generate income.

You take over an already existing company.
You take a comparatively low risk as the successor of an existing business. For example, if your predecessor retires, you can usually rely on an existing customer base. Of course, it is important to be thoroughly informed about the company, its actual economic situation and the market. And last but not least, you have to understand this market so as not to scare off long-standing customers.

You start your own business with a franchise.
With franchising , you do not need your own idea, just the industry in which you want to work. The big advantage is that you have an existing system that has proven itself. The licensor provides advice to the licensee and you also benefit from the licensor's marketing. Often, you need less starting capital than other forms of self-employment. On the other hand, you also have less design options here. A McDonalds remains a McDonald's and does not become a gourmet restaurant.

Before self-employment: You can do that now
Independence Prerequisites: You can do that nowBefore you start a company , there are a few important intermediate steps or requirements that you should have fulfilled. These homework assignments include:

Write a business plan
Although there is no obligation to write a business plan, in any case it is advisable to make a concrete plan and record it in writing for a successful start in self-employment.

Write down your idea, your planned sales, your goals and strategies to reach them and in which market you are dealing with which competitors. A good and convincing business plan is not only an important document for orientation and control, but is often required by banks or funding agencies if you need a loan or a capital injection to start your own business.

Clarify the financing
If you initially need capital to start your own business, you should think about financing in good time. Maybe equipment has to be bought and paid for, you have to go for purchases in advance or you need the necessary small change for the legal form. Anyone who does not bring enough equity needs help from financial institutions.

Therefore, inform yourself in good time which requirements you must meet and which offers are most attractive for you.

Take care of the registrations
To officially start a business and be self-employed, you usually need to enroll in a business - unless you work in a freelance profession, such as journalists or doctors. To do this, you must contact the relevant trade office of your county or city.

In addition, further entries may be necessary, for example, craftsmen have to register with the competent Chamber of Crafts. If it is a commercial business, you must register yourself in the commercial register.

Choose a legal form
The legal form is an important factor when you are self-employed. It gives rise to rights and obligations, which is why you should know exactly which legal form is suitable for your new company.

Thus, a limited liability company (GmbH) has the advantage that you are liable only up to the amount of your deposits and your private assets are protected. On the other hand, however, you need a starting capital of at least 25,000 euros in order to be able to found a GmbH at all.

The society of civil law is also popular . Start-up capital is not needed here, but you need a business partner and, in the worst case, are fully liable for your private assets.

Complete necessary insurance
Those who are self-employed always carry certain risks. On the way to independence you should therefore necessarily take out the necessary insurance (the dossier can be found HERE ) to be prepared for emergencies. These include, for example, a public liability and legal expenses insurance.

But also privately you should assure yourself if you want to start your own business. A private health, pension and unemployment insurance are very important, just as useful is a disability insurance .


Self-employed: 4 steps to self-employment
The US entrepreneur Katja Andes once developed four steps that can also help you to choose between self-employment on the one hand and employment on the other hand. We found you so original that we also perform here again:

Steps to Independence: Call Perfect Day
Imagine your perfect day and analyze how far you are from today!

The desire for change is almost always based on current dissatisfaction (see above). What is the cause, but you find out only by self-reflection . The key question is: what is the difference between desire and reality?

To find out what is ultimately important to you (professionally), Andes recommends a simple method: Write the perfect day in your mind (or in writing on a notebook) . This perfect day should cover all areas of life that are important to you - apart from your job, your private life, family, hobbies and leisure activities.

To illustrate the perfect day, the entrepreneur has listed a few questions that you can follow:

What are you doing on this day?
What are you learning?
What do you create / create / work?
Which hobbies are you following?
Who do you spend the day with?
Where are they?
How do you live?
How do you feel?
The second step is to compare your ideal ideal and reality. Where are there overlaps? Where are there significant gaps? Where can the two pictures not be combined? The more similar the two sides are in the juxtaposition, the more evidence that you are on the right track.

You will be happy and satisfied especially if your life suits your ideas. If this is not the case yet, it is up to you to make the necessary changes to get closer to the perfect day. This can - but need not - be self-employment.

Steps to independence: facing alternatives
Write down possible alternatives and compare their advantages and disadvantages!

With the goal in mind that you have found through the above list, it is now about finding a way to achieve just this goal. Look for possible options and action alternatives that will get you started and help make the perfect day a reality.

A basic question is: is self-employment really the alternative that leads you to the optimal state - or are there other alternatives? For example, part-time work , a sabbatical , a job change or even a restart in a completely different industry?

In addition, Andes offers the advice: Once you have defined the action alternatives, take some time and write down the pros and cons in detail for each alternative . The comparison helps with the evaluation of options - like a classic pro-contra list .

Steps to independence: Imagine worst-case scenario
Imagine the worst case scenario!

The seemingly best alternative can sometimes be the one with the greatest risks. Step # 3 therefore serves to remove uncertainties and threatening assumptions from the most potential alternative - and not to panic, but to turn it into a more realistic assessment.

Imagine what could happen in the worst case. And please in detail! It's about drawing a deliberately bad scenario in case you fail. What would be the worst thing that could happen? Overwrite here - it may seem quirky and unrealistic.

To imagine the "worst case" sometimes helps to realize that it just can not be that bad. Motto: Even if I fail , this is not the end of the world.

The second part of this step is to also have possible solutions to this worst case: So at the same time, ask yourself how you can manage to get back on your feet. For example, could you return to your current job or find a comparable job?

With the knowledge of a worst-case scenario and the way back, you are ready to face any challenge. You know exactly what you are getting involved with - and you no longer need to fear the risk. In the worst case, you have a solution in the hindquarters now .

Steps to independence: observe timing
Leave your comfort zone!

The preparations are now made, but so far everything was gray theory . Now it is important to find the optimal time to put the chosen path into action.

You will not get around leaving your comfort zone . The two options remain: either piece by piece or jump directly into the cold water.

It is not necessarily the best way to quit your job immediately and start your own business. Nevertheless, you should start implementing your plans - preferably every day. Even small steps eventually lead to the goal.

For example, start by building something along the way. This also has the advantage of gaining valuable experience early on and gaining confidence. Many people believe that it is necessary to build up a huge financial buffer before you run the risk of self-employment. But he does not have to be that tall.

For example, check how long you have estimated the period to find out from the worst-case scenario. In a realistic scenario, you will often need less time and less money . This example can help you more realistically estimate your required financial buffer.

Interview: Is it better to start your own business?
Is it better to start your own business?Anyone who looks at the founders' scene like this soon realizes that many entrepreneurs start their business shortly after their studies or after their apprenticeship - thus at a young age. Even Steve Jobs, Bill Gates or Mark Zuckerberg were not even 30 when you launched your billion-dollar companies. So maybe it's better to start your own business at a young age? So in the early 20 or mid 30?

The communications scientist and founding consultant, Alexander Plitsch , also dealt intensively with the question. We have therefore conducted a short interview with him :

Mr Plitsch, many think that you should first gain some years of professional experience before starting your own business. Is that correct?

No, not so absolutely. While it is true that deeper insights into industries or markets are helpful. You can also look up a lot from bosses and colleagues. However, there is no steeper learning curve for young people than self-employment: If you are responsible for everything - and always - you learn at an extremely fast pace. They make a lot of experiences, which are withheld from you in the job because they are top priority.

But is the risk of failure not greater?

The possibility of failure exists in self-employment as well as in the job too. But both are usually not a broken leg. Especially to the entrepreneur's existence are setbacks. After all, you learn the most from mistakes. In addition, nothing changes at an older age. Especially with young people it is like this: If you fail with your idea, you can still get hired. What have you got to lose?

So do you think that reasons are better at a young age?

That too is not automatic. As a greenhorn you are not taken seriously by some customers and business partners. Many still place age and competence in close connection. Young self-employed is then - often wrongly - less credited or denied the qualifications due to the lesser experience.

So what to do?

Changing this setting is difficult. But you can learn to deal with such - often unspoken - objections better. At the beginning of my self-employment, I personally deliberately addressed customers who wanted to address young target groups. And there is also the other side of the coin: quite a few respect a young entrepreneur for the courage and the ability to start their own business so early. It also gives you a lot of energy and motivation.

Mr Plitsch, thank you for the interview.


9 myths about self-employment
Self-employment undoubtedly brings some advantages over the classic employee relationship. In the past, however, countless myths and legends have been established around the topic of "becoming independent" , with which we want to clear up at this point (and from our own experience).

Therefore, and therefore, we have listed and disenchanted nine of the most common myths about working as a self-employed entrepreneur below ...

You can work when you want.
Self-employed people certainly have more freedom in working hours than employees with a regular employment contract . But as the saying goes, the self-employed work above all else all the time ... And it's also true: It can easily take three years for a company to become established, establish a solid customer base and run smoothly. During this time, many founders work more than 60 hours a week - usually over the weekend, too. And depending on the industry - for example in consulting, as an agency or as a freelancer - many have to comply with the wishes of the customers - and be available. Above all, then you work more - and then, when your customers want it.

You can work wherever you want.
On the way, on the train or on the beach, unfold the laptop and work - that is the dream of many workers. This actually works in some (internet-heavy) industries and jobs. But as soon as a project has to take place at the customer, you need a shop or an office for your employees, but the freedom is usually over - and the days counted on the beach.

They only work according to their own rules.
Being your own boss, just play by your own rules - nice idea. But gray theory. Although you can define such rules of the game - stupid only if no customer then plays along, but you need the sales. Rather, and especially at the beginning, it's the other way round: For projects with or for other companies, you play according to their rules (as far as billing and payment terms are concerned). Divergence is not a good idea in such cases.

You can choose your own customers.
Nice, once you are ready. This is certainly a goal worth working towards. But what is true is that very few self-employed and freelancers can afford to be choosy about their customers - especially at the beginning of their self-employment. This changes over time and with growing success, but even then full freedom of choice is an illusion - especially when it comes to an important major customer.

You choose your projects freely.
In the selection of projects, it is like choosing a customer: With growing success, the options are broadened, but before that, the majority lives on what comes from hand to mouth. Above all, you write many offers, of which only a few really do the job.

Self-employed people earn a lot of money.
True, as a businessman, the prospects of bringing it to great prosperity are greater than in a career as an employee. However, gross here is not the same net: self-employed also need health insurance and also have to consider how to provide privately for old age. In addition, there are a variety of taxes and duties: trade tax, IHK contributions, sales tax, possibly corporate tax, various insurance and and and. So at the end of every euro earned less than 50 cents left. In order to be able to live from it, one must first of all earn a lot - and that also regularly every month.

You do not have annoying colleagues anymore.
Self-employed who work alone, spared by such horror colleagues , that's right. But that does not mean that business partners and customers could not play on the nerves of La Paloma ... Many a customer thinks he can always ask for more, calls in the middle of the night or simply does not pay the bill. Relaxation is definitely different. In addition, working as a one-man or one-woman business is not optimal for everyone. Some just need a team around them to stay productive and motivated - even if that can temporarily be annoying.

You can go on holiday whenever you want.
And as long as they want. Theoretically yes. Practical: Only if you can afford it. For on vacation you may not only earn nothing - it also costs money. Moreover, it is just such a myth, entrepreneurs could go to their heart's content on vacation. You also have to align this with the needs and deadlines of the customers. And sometimes there is also something like forced leave - then when there are no jobs. Relaxed are such company holidays only if there are follow-up orders. Otherwise, the idle is more likely to cause panic attacks.

Self-employed people work in their dream job.
Many entrepreneurs are self-employed to realize their dream or vision. That's right. But whether the practice later agrees with their own wishes and ideas, is on a completely different page. Self-employment can, but does not have to lead to a dream job . Sometimes it's just another form of earning a living. Often the wisdom also applies: The business model you start with is never the company you succeed with.
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Acquire new customers: That's the way it works

No matter whether you sell a product or offer a service: If you start your own business and build your own, initially small business, you need to acquire new customers . Finally, to make sales and be successful, you must first land orders that generate revenue and, at best, lead to long-term customer relationships. However, customers will not come to you by themselves - you must actively approach the acquisition. Often, however, there is a lack of knowledge and experience as to how exactly new customers are acquired and what must be taken into account in order to find suitable orders. We explain how you can acquire new customers and what options are available to you ...

Acquire new customers: That's the way it works

Contents: That's what you'll find in this article

Acquiring new customers: a necessity for survival
Acquiring new customers costs overcoming
Acquire new customers: a continuous challenge
Tips and methods to acquire new customers
These articles are interesting for other readers:



Acquiring new customers: a necessity for survival
Acquiring new customers is often a tiresome topic that self-employed people are not particularly fond of. Those who set themselves up have a clear product or service in their mind that they want to produce, offer and sell. This can be the creative achievement of a designer, a craft business, consulting and coaching or perhaps the making of clothing.

What exactly it is, is initially secondary. What unites many founders is the desire to concentrate on this core competence . But that alone is not enough in the beginning to build a successful business. Staying with one of the examples above, you may be one of the best designers in the country, with skills and qualifications that will impress and outperform the competition, but if you do not start acquiring new customers at the beginning, you'll still be in financial trouble.

At a later stage, if you have already made a name and are known in the industry or in your area, potential customers are also other means to you, but who does not invest enough energy in the beginning to acquire new customers makes, usually a big mistake.

It is a sobering insight , but important to the success and survival of any business: acquiring new business is often a bigger and bigger part of the work for founders than the actual activity itself. The logic, however, is simple. Only when the order situation is right, you can work profitably and really use your skills.


Acquiring new customers costs overcoming
Most founders and self-employed people are not very happy to take care of new customer acquisition. This is not because it is not the actual job they want to do, but rather that it can be a great deal of overcoming and at the same time requires a lot of staying power to approach new potential customers, contact them, and make their own offer to inform.

A particularly big problem many self-employed with the possible rejection . After all, acquiring new customers always means taking the risk of having one cancellation after another. Instead of a good order situation, all that remains is doubt, whether your own business model really works or whether it is already heading for a dead end.

In addition, self-employed people often take a rejection personally, which suffers the self-confidence . Anyone who presents a product, but does not receive an order, because this is uninteresting for the other, feels itself also attacked and takes the rejection very much to heart, although it is purely professional nature.

Acquire new customers: a continuous challenge
Acquire new customers Acquire customers Acquire customers properlyNew customers have to be acquired at the beginning in order to get a business up and running. Once this often rocky start has been made, regular customers can be set up to ensure that their recurring orders generate corresponding sales. It is wrong, however, to completely rely on it and to stop the acquisition at a certain point.

Completing the active acquisition of new customers completely may work, but it is the better strategy to build on the long term to attract more customers and then also include this in their own regular customers. In this way, you can specifically work on the further and lasting growth of your company.


Tips and methods to acquire new customers
It may not always be easy for you, but there are several good ways to acquire new customers, build your customer base and grow your business. Which works best for you personally, whereby you feel well and what you ultimately decide, it is up to you. However, for a start it is advisable to try different things and develop a strategy for the acquisition .

We have listed several methods that you can use to acquire new customers and explain how they work and what you should be aware of:

The cold calling
It is the classic when it comes to acquiring new customers and almost everyone has ever heard of cold calling. At the same time, however, it is particularly hard and exhausting to publicize one's own offer and generate potential orders. In addition, the cold calling is partly controversial.

Basically, it's about reaching for the phone without prior contact (sometimes writing on an email) and addressing potential prospects directly. This can happen through research, but often also contact information is purchased. If there is no interest, such a cold call usually ends very abruptly and it can be very frustrating to make countless phone calls without even receiving an order.



The recommendation network
A completely different approach leads to the goal of the recommendation network. Rather than just getting in the door, focusing on your product or service, and working together as soon as possible, this is about building a real network, making contacts and building mutual trust be given serious recommendations.

Through contacts you make, you get into conversation and thus have the opportunity to acquire new customers to whom you have been recommended. Of course, such a network also works in the other direction, so you also recommend the members of your network.



The reviews
Feedback and assessments of existing customers are an important tool for gaining additional clients. How this works can be clearly seen at online retailers like Amazon. Here, the reviews and reviews of other customers are often the decisive argument for or against a purchase - and thus for or against an order for the underlying company.

You as a self-employed person can also benefit from the positive feedback and recommendations of previous customers. For example, include a rating option on your homepage or include quotes from satisfied customers that are visible to other visitors.

The online acquisition
Of course, as a self-employed person, you should also be able to find them online, preferably via your own homepage, which leads directly to you, your offers and all the information. That can help, but often is not enough to attract new customers. If you have a budget, you can also advertise for even better found and greater reach.

In addition to your own website, you should also find out where you can reach potential customers online to attract attention. Here, for example, Facebook groups or other networks and forums can be particularly interesting. It is advisable, however, not just to make clumsy advertising, but to attract attention with useful and good comments. Not only does it get better, it also has the bigger effect.

The customer information
You can only acquire new customers if you are sent the all important information. After all, you want the other to decide on your product or service and invest money for it. However, this will only happen if the counterpart is sure to make a good decision and make a meaningful investment.

For this you have to communicate clearly what makes you different and different from others. What is different from the competition? What are you doing better? How can you score? The more credible you can answer these questions, the greater the likelihood of acquiring new customers.
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Telephone acquisition: definition, legal position, tips

The Telefonakquise is a popular tool in the distribution of goods and services. In contrast to direct sales, the costs for sales on the telephone can be kept relatively low. Especially founders, self-employed and freelancers like to fall back on this form of distribution. But even long-established companies can benefit from the telephone acquisition. However, there are some legal pitfalls that you should know before picking up the phone ...

Telephone acquisition: definition, legal position, tips

Contents: That's what you'll find in this article

Telephone Acquisition: The Definition
Is telephone acquisition prohibited?
Telephone acquisition in the business customer distribution
Telephone acquisition for private customers
Short guide to successful phone acquisition
What other readers have read



Telephone Acquisition: The Definition
Telephone Acquisition: The DefinitionTelephone acquisition is a form of operational distribution. A distinction is made between the so-called cold acquisition and the warm acquisition :

When cold calling is about to gain new customers. In this form of acquisition , there was previously no contact with the conversation partner. It is therefore more challenging, since a business relationship should be initiated by the first phone call - and that with a completely foreign person .
The warm acquisition on the other hand has the existing customers in view. The goal here is to bring old business relationships back to life. The telephone acquisition of existing customers is therefore perceived as less problematic. After all , there was already a contact and you know who to call on the phone.
Is telephone acquisition prohibited?
Especially newcomers to the subject Telefonakquise and entrepreneurs often wonder whether the Telefonakquise banned was. Maybe you have heard something like that before at a network meeting or start-up seminar.

Latest since the DSGVO has brought self-employed, freelancers and companies in Germany and Europe into a sweat, is also the topic of sales on the phone back on the plan.

And indeed: Legislators provide clear frameworks to which telephone acquisition is subject. Not least, this is regulated in the law against unfair competition .


If you want to do telephone acquisition, you should know the basic rules :

Telephone acquisition in the business customer distribution
First and foremost, it's about who you want to call to sell a product or service. In B2B business , ie between business customers, the rules are not quite as strict. One reason for this: There are no consumers in the sense of the law that need to be protected.

If one businesswoman calls another, two professionals meet at eye level. Legislators in this case assume that neither is in need of special protection , but is in a position to make their own decisions - after all, they run a business or are at least in an exposed position in the company (Head of Purchasing, Supervisors Customer service or similar).

In business customer sales, therefore, a suspected interest of the person called is sufficient. For example, if you distribute computer software, you can easily call a hardware manufacturer and promote your product. It is also conceivable that you contact companies that could work with your software in the future. In short, in the B2B business, the scope of interpretation for permitted telephone acquisition is greater. Also, because prior express consent is not necessary .

It is even easier if it has already been in contact with the customer. Have you ever telephoned before or the customer has ever inquired about your service or your product, nothing speaks against another call. On the contrary, this can even be a good strategy to turn the former customer into a loyal existing customer.

If, during the course of the conversation, the contact person wishes to stop calling you, you must adhere to it . If this is not done, it can be annoying and annoying and therefore adversely affect telemarketing. If the person called feels massively oppressed, he can even take legal action against you. A call that was previously banned can be interpreted as unreasonable harassment . If the contact attempt also takes place during working hours, you are doubly wrong.

Telephone acquisition for private customers
Something else is true in the so-called B2C business , ie private customers . When it comes to selling something to consumers or alerting them to a service, there are strict requirements.

If the call is the first contact, this is often referred to as a cold call among telephone distributors . If this happens without the explicit prior consent of the consumer, you go legally on thin ice. By the way, not only for calls, but also for emails and faxes with clear advertising content. Without consent, they are prohibited.

If consumer advocates or competitors become aware of this, it can lead to an ad - and that can be expensive.

So, if you primarily want to call consumers to sell your product, you always need prior consent - not just any, but an explicit one. In court, a letter or other signed document from the consumer is usually requested. If you can not prove that, it looks bad: in this case, courts regularly assume that consent is lacking. The next step is then a procedure including an omission statement . The costs must be borne by the one who operated the telephone acquisition.


Short guide to successful phone acquisition
The telephone cold calling is the supreme discipline in sales. Without question, the callers need a lot of courage, assertiveness and persuasiveness and intrinsic motivation .

With some tips, you can prepare the cold phone call well and minimize the pressure during the call. With a bit of training sales over the phone soon runs like clockwork - and then can be really fun.

How to call the phone:

Do your homework.
The preparation for the conversation must be sitting. Before you pick up the phone, you should about the company and your future interlocutors research . This gives you valuable information on why he or she should be interested in your offer.

The entrance must sit.
A good conversation opening is half the battle. And the hardest part of the phone call. After all, you do not know the mood in which you meet your conversation partner. There is only one thing to do : stay calm, take a short break . Try to smile (you can hear that) and stand (interestingly, you also hear - you sound more self-confident, alert) and avoid mentioning your interlocutor's name at every opportunity. This is such a tip from the past - and just annoying.

Strapping the wizard.
Only in the rarest cases you will get the decision maker immediately on the phone. In most cases, an assistant or assistant is available to answer the calls. One of their duties is probably to block such phone calls.

Do not worry, it's still possible to get the supervisor on the line. The door openers are friendliness and appreciation . Do not consider the assistants as a necessary evil to overcome, but treat them as partners. So in the end how you would treat your actual conversation partner. Sentences like ...

Please take me to Mr / Mrs XY, I would like to discuss this in person.

are therefore an absolute no-go. The reverse approach is correct: show the assistant how important they are and ultimately decide on your success. This works like this:

Dear Mrs ABC, it is really important that I can discuss a proposal with Mr / Mrs XY. You are the only person I can hope for.

Ask open questions.
Calling by phone does not mean that you spent minutes and minutes on your caller. On the contrary, they want to know what moves him and what urgent questions and problems he has. So let him talk, listen carefully and take notes . The conversation is best set in motion when you ask open questions . So those who can answer the person at the other end of the line not only yes or no .

Let your partner talk and do not anticipate any statements - certainly not negative ones. Statements like ...

I am aware that the budget for this and that is small just in the middle of the year ...

you should completely delete from your repertoire . This will show understanding, but in the wrong way. Your conversation partner then only has to agree - and the business has burst. Talk about the opportunities that your offer offers the customer.

Mirror your conversation partner.
If the conversation falters you can try it with a trick: Repeat the last statement of your potential customer in modified words . If you do it right, you will get approval from him or her. This is a good starting point for further discussion.

Put on positive communication.
You can use your choice of words to influence the outcome of the call. If you choose the positive option instead of the negative , it will do something to your listener. Studies have shown that our brain takes longer to decode a negative. The sentence

I do not want to insinuate that you ...

First of all, it is exactly the same with the listener: As insinuation. It will take some time until your interlocutor understands that you mean otherwise. During this time, the rest of the conversation continues. More importantly, your listener's attitude will change . He or she starts from an assumption and will certainly not enjoy that. This influences the further course of the conversation.

In psychology, this process is known as priming . What is meant here is that the first stimulus (here the assumption), which is recorded and processed in the brain, influences the further interpretation to a considerable extent . Try the effect on the following example: Ask a colleague to repeat the word white 30 to 40 times, then immediately ask him what a cow is drinking. The answer will almost certainly be milk .

You can use this circumstance for the telephone acquisition . Provide statements that your correspondent will answer in the affirmative. This can also be quite normal small talk about the weather, which he will agree. If you have it in a yes-loop , ask a question that is important to you. For example, after a personal appointment or non-binding offer of your service. The chances that your chosen partner will agree are now much better.
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